J and I and Me
  JAOO / Goto Conference 2010: Spring Framework 3.0 On The Way To 3.1 (Jürgen Höller)
In this talk Jürgen showed the current step in the evolution of Spring i.e. the step from version 3.0 to 3.1. As most of the readers will be familiar with 3.0 I will not go into much detail concerning the first part of the talk.

Version 3.0.5 will be the last version for the 3.0 family. The first milestone for Spring 3.1 is scheduled for November - so it won't be long until you get something to play with.

Environment Specific Beans

One important feature will be environment specific beans. Applications usually run on several different environments. There is at least the Java SE environment you use for JUnit tests. You might do staging on a Tomcat server and production on a Java EE server. Beans that manage access to other system might be replaced by mocks for some of them. The goal of the environment specific beans is to deal with these differences in infrastructure while the deployment units are not changed. Usually operations insists that deployment units must not be changed between tests and production.

There are already ways to deal with this challenge. However, if this is supported as a first class part of the configuration it will be much easier and elegant to use. There are still discussions how this feature will be implemented so the details of this feature are not set
in stone.

The Spring Beans will be grouped by environment. The environment itself will be determined by an API that you can extend yourself for maximum flexibility. Placeholders will be resolved depending on the environment.

A possible syntax could be:
<bean id="dataSource" class="org.apache.commons.dbcp.BasicDataSource"
  <property name="driverClass" value="${database.driver}"/>
  <property name="jdbcUrl" value="${database.url}"/>
  <property name="username" value="${database.username}"/>
  <property name="password" value="${database.password}"/>

<beans profile="embedded">
  <jdbc:embedded-database id="dataSource" type="H2">
    <jdbc:script location="/WEB-INF/database/schema-member.sql"/>
    <jdbc:script location="/WEB-INF/database/schema-activity.sql"/>
    <jdbc:script location="/WEB-INF/database/schema-event.sql"/>
    <jdbc:script location="/WEB-INF/database/data.sql"/>

As you can see the beans element is reused to also cover different environments. As mentioned above the actual implementation might be different - and of course the engineers are happy if you have any feedback!

Improvements for the Java Application Configuration

Java Application Configuration with @Configuration was already introduced in Spring 3.0. In the upcoming release it will be improved to also cover a functionality that resembles the XML namespaces. These namespace are used throughout the framework to configure features like transactions or aop. As the following code sample shows one possible implementation uses a fluent API - in this case to create something that resembles <tx:annotation-driven

public void AppConfig {
  private DataSource dataSource;

  public RewardsService rewardsService() {
    return new RewardsServiceImpl(dataSource);

  public PlatformTransactionManager txManager() {
    return new DataSourceTransactionManager(dataSource);
  public TransactionConfiguration txConfig() {
    return annotationDrivenTx().withTransactionManager(txManager());

Cache Abstraction

The Spring modules project offered some integration for caching and there is also a very basic cache abstraction. In Spring 3.1 there will be support for EhCache, GemFire, Coherence, etc. Several will be shipped with Spring core but it will also be possible to plug in custom adapters if necessary. The caching itself can then be configured using annotations for example:

public Owner loadOwner(int id);

@Cacheable(condition="name.length < 10")
public Owner loadOwner(String name);

public void deleteOwner(int id);

As you can see methods can be marked as cacheable. This can be fine tuned using SpEL (Spring Expression Language). Other methods can be marked as invalidating the cache.

Conversation Management

This feature will allow a user to handle multiple orders in a web application simultaneously - for example in several browser windows or tabs. The state of these must be isolated from one another. The HttpSession is not an option for this because windows share the same

Spring will manage the window id e.g. by using MVC session form attributes. This is a much simpler problem than the flow support in Spring Web Flow that allows for a simpler solution.

Keeping Up

Spring 3.1 will also support Servlet 3.0 on servers like Tomcat 7 or GlassFish 3. This will include the automatic registration of framework listeners which will make it even easier to use Spring in these settings. Also the support for JSF 2.0 will be improved e.g. for conversations.

Sum Up

Spring 3.1 optimizes Spring in several ways. As the version number indicated polishing and improvements are the main subjects. In particular the cache abstraction is interesting as nowadays a lot of applications need this kind of feature to build scalable solutions.

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